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Author Guidelines

[General Considerations]

[Preparing the Manuscript]


[Associated Files: (Images, Line Graphics (Tables and Charts), Multimedia, Tabular Data)]

[Administrative (Patient Consent) Files]
[Manuscript Styles, Formats and Sections][Bibliographic Citation Style]

[Sample Manuscript] [Ethics] [Statistics]

General Considerations

To present the best peer-reviewed articles in neurophysiology in the most rapid manner, NNN has adopted simplified guidelines for manuscript preparation. Once you have prepared the manuscript accordingly, use the easy online manuscript submission process on our home page All published articles are indexed by the National Library of Medicine and appear in PubMed. The full text of all articles is always freely available at

Citations of articles published in the NNN Journal should adhere to the following format (example using Index Medicus reference format): Smith J. Research in neurology. Neurol Neurophysiol Neuroscience 2004;31:1-5. In this example, 2004 is the year and volume number; 31 is the article number and 1-5 are the page numbers. Some Journals may require that you also include the date that you downloaded or viewed the article. If that is required, here is the suggested format: Smith J. Research in neurology. Neurol Neurophysiol Neuroscience 2004;31:1-5 (viewed on June 5, 2004).

The NNN reserves the right to make minor grammatical or formatting changes to all articles accepted for publication, but in most cases the article will be reviewed and published just as it is submitted. Be certain that the content of the article is clear and that it is free of typographic errors. If you question your English proficiency, you may wish to consult a colleague or professional copy editor prior to submission.

For consistency, all NNN articles are published on the Web as PDF (Portable Document Format) documents. This insures uniform viewing across all platforms without sacrificing search capabilities. The manuscript you submit (in Word or RTF format) will be converted, as part of the submission process, to a PDF for the review-and-decision process and the final accepted-and-published version.

Before you submit, you must register at as a participant. At the time of online submission, once you have logged in, you will need

  • the electronic manuscript file (prepared according to the specifications below)
  • names (first initial and last name for all authors, with middle initial and e-mail address optional)

For any questions about submission standards, please contact the Editor in Chief, Bruce Fisch MD.

Preparing the Manuscript


Use any of the following word processor formats: Microsoft Word (version 5 and higher)or Rich Text Format (RTF), preparing the document as follows:

  • The submitted manuscript file, including images, figures and illustrations, must be less than 2 MB.
  • Format the document single-spaced, 1 column per page, page size 8.5” x 11”, with margins of 1 inch (2.5 cm), left-right and top-bottom, fully justified to left and right margins.
  • Use bold-and-centered 22 point Times Roman (or similar) font, for the title.
  • Use centered 14 point Times Roman (or similar) font, for the authors list and affiliations list (all in one paragraph).
  • Use superscript numbers in 14 point Times Roman (or similar) font after each author to indicate appropriate affiliation.
  • Use flush-left 11 point Times Roman (or similar) font for the corresponding author identification.
  • Use all-capitalized bold-and-centered 14 point Times Roman (or similar) font for all section headings (except Abstract and Search Terms) with 2 blank lines (carriage returns) above and 1 below
  • Use all-capitalized bold and centered 14 point Times Roman (or similar) font for the Abstract section heading with 2 blank lines (carriage returns) above and 1 below
  • Use upper-and-lower case flush-left plain 11 point Times Roman (or similar) font for the Search Terms heading, followed by a colon, a space and the search terms or key words, with 1 blank line (carriage return) above and 1 below
  • Use 11 point Times Roman (or similar) font for the manuscript abstract, body text and references.
  • Use two spaces at the end of each sentence (after the period) in the abstract and text.

  • For the abstract, use bold-and-all-capitalized section identifiers (PURPOSE, METHODS, RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS).
  • Do not indent the first paragraph of each section. Indent the beginning of each subsequent paragraph within that section by 5 spaces.
  • Leave one blank line after all headings and all paragraphs.
  • Number all pages, at the bottom of each page, aligned right, starting with the first page.
  • The file (Word or Rich Text Format) you submit must have a 3-letter file extension appropriate to the file type being submitted (.doc for Word and .rtf for Rich Text Format). This applies to Mac platform users, since the Mac operating system does not require file extensions.

If your article contains images, charts or graphs, include them in the body of the manuscript using the simple Microsoft Word method, text box with wrapping, which produces professional results. The text box can be any size or width on the page, as large as necessary for proper image display. Images, figures and illustrations should be inserted with a resolution of 72 dpi/ppi in order to help keep article sizes below the 2 MB limit. *Please note that in order to insert an object into a text box (as explained below), the object must be saved as an image file. This may be difficult if the object was created in Microsoft Word. It is advised that authors create tables and illustrations using software that allows these items to be saved as an image file.

To make a text box:

  • choose Insert>Text Box from the main menu

  • place the cursor where you want to insert the image
  • clicking-and-holding the left mouse button, drag the cursor to create the text box (existing article text will wrap around the box)
  • place the cursor on any text box border (the four-arrow image appears), right-mouse click, choose Format Text Box>Layout and make certain that Square is marked as the preferred wrapping style
  • move the box (if needed) by clicking-and-holding any of the four sides of the box (the four-arrow image appears

To insert a graphic:

  • click anywhere inside the text box
  • choose Insert>Picture>From File
  • browse for and select the image you need to insert
  • resize the image (if needed) by clicking-and-holding the left mouse button on any corner of the image and dragging it - the text box will resize to accommodate the image

To insert a caption:

  • click on the lower right corner of the image but still inside the text box
  • hit the Enter key twice to space down two lines
  • if you cannot see the cursor below the image, expand the text box downward, by clicking-and-holding any of the four corners or the four mid-line miniboxes
  • add the caption (type in or copy-and-paste)
  • format the caption as needed by highlighting it and choosing Format>Font from the main menu

Associated Files: (Images, Line Graphics (Tables and Charts), Multimedia, Tabular Data)

Some complex images and line graphics, when inserted into word processing documents, appear downgraded in quality (poor resolution). The editorial staff will ask you to resubmit your figures separately at a later time if the image quality in the PDF (as they view it) is less than acceptable.

Administrative (Patient Consent) Files

If you include images in which patients are identifiable in any way, you must obtain a signed consent (release) and obscure the patient’s face in the submitted files. If the main finding involves the face, then only that portion of the face showing the abnormality should be included in the image. NNN requires that you submit a copy of the signed release you obtained, as a scanned-document TIF file, by e-mail to the Editor in Chief, Bruce Fisch MD.

Manuscript Styles, Formats and Sections

NNN accepts four types of manuscripts for publication:

  • Editorials
  • Articles (original research, reviews or theory)
  • Images in Neurology, Neurophysiology and Neuroscience
  • Letters to the Editor (related to previously published articles)

Use the section names listed below (where appropriate) for the type of manuscript you are submitting. All manuscripts require, at a minimum, a Title, Authors List, Affiliations List, Corresponding Author, Abstract, Search Terms (Key Words) and Discussion.

Prepare each section with the header in bold and centered on a separate line, with two blank lines (two carriage returns) above the section header and one blank line between the header and the text material.



The title of the article should be concise but informative.


List all authors in sequential order, in the format LastName FirstInitial MiddleInitial with authors’ names separated by commas, followed by a superscript number to link to the appropriate institutional affiliation.


Smith AJ1, Stewart H2, Kelly IN3.


List all institutional affiliations, in the format Institution, City, State/Province, Country, in numerical order, separated by semicolons, to correspond with the numbered superscripts after each author (same format as Authors above).


1Unversity of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Brain Sciences Center, VAMC, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Corresponding Author

List the name, in the format LastName, FirstName MiddleInitial, full address and e-mail address of the author responsible for manuscript correspondence.


Corresponding author: Smith, Art J. University of New Orleans, Department of Neurology, 7001 Lakeshore Drive, New Orleans, LA 70148;


Articles: The abstract should not exceed 300 words and should use the section headings PURPOSE: the purposes of the study or investigation, METHODS: basic procedures with selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods, RESULTS: main findings with specific data and their statistical significance, if possible, CONCLUSIONS: the principal conclusions.

Letters to the Editor and Images in Neurology, Neurophysiology and Neuroscience: The abstract should not exceed 100 words and does not require the section headings.

Search Terms (Key Words)

Provide 3 to 10 search terms (key words) to assist in indexing the article. Terms from the medical subject headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus are preferred; if suitable MeSH terms are not yet available for recently introduced terms, current terminology may be used.



State the purpose of the article and summarize the rationale for the study or observation. Give only strictly pertinent references and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.


Describe your selection of the observational or experimental subjects (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly. Identify the age, sex, and other important characteristics of the subjects.

Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer’s name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods; provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Precisely identify all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name, dose, and route of administration.

Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements including the protocol (study population, interventions or exposures, outcomes, and the rationale for statistical analysis), assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding).

Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and symbols.


Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations. The text should emphasize or summarize important observations but not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations.


Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section. Include in the Discussion section the implications of the findings and their limitations, including implications for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant studies.

Link the conclusions with the goals of the study, but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by the data. In particular, authors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted and clearly label them as such. Recommendations, when appropriate, may be included.


Editorials, Review articles and Theory articles should follow the same rules for the title, author list, corresponding author and search terms as those described for all manuscripts. The abstract should contain no more than 200 words and does not require section headings. The text should clearly state the purpose of the manuscript and may be divided into appropriate subheadings (11 point Times New Roman or similar font, italicized, left). The reference section should follow the guidelines for ALL MANUSCRIPTS outlined below.


Images in Neurology, Neurophysiology and Neuroscience should follow the same rules for the title, author list, corresponding author and search terms as those described for all manuscripts. The abstract should contain no more than 100 words and does not require section headings. One image should be inserted immediately after the ABSTRACT and does not require a legend. The following section should be labeled IMAGE DESCRIPTION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE and must be 14 point Times New Roman (or similar) font, bold and centered. If references are cited in the description, then the last section should be the bibliographic citations (REFERENCES, 14 point Times New Roman (or similar) font, bold and centered) and must follow the guidelines for ALL MANUSCRIPTS outlined below.


Letters to the Editor should follow the same rules for the title, author list, corresponding author and search terms as those described for all manuscripts. The abstract should contain no more than 100 words and does not require section headings. The text should clearly state the purpose of the letter and appropriately reference the article that is the subject of the letter. Letters that offer scientific criticisms of an article (e.g. methods or statistical analyses), that offer alternative conclusions for the article's data, or that present an alternative point of view based on credible published literature will be considered for publication.



List sources of support in the form of grants, equipment, or drugs.

Reference Citations in the Manuscript

Use parentheses around Name,Year references singly or in series. Separate serial references by semicolons. Order authors in chronological, then alphabetical order. Examples are (Smith, 2001) or (Guy, 2001; Smith, 2001; Jones, 2005) in the manuscript text. Do not use superscript references. Follow the Bibliographic Citation Style (below) for all references listed at the end of the manuscript.

(Smith, 2001) or (Guy, 2001; Smith, 2001; Jones, 2005)

Bibliographic Citation Style

References should be listed in alphabetic order, not the order in which references are cited in the text. The first line of each entry is not indented. All subsequent lines within the same entry should be inserted.

NNN follows the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th ed., 1998, for references. In summary, the recommended styles are:

Printed Journal Article

Standard journal article:

List the first six authors (and if more, followed by et al.)

Parkin DM, Clayton D, Black RJ, Masuyer E, Friedl HP, Ivanov E, et al. Childhood—leukaemia in Europe after Chernobyl: 5 year follow-up. Br J Cancer 1996;73:1006-12.

Organization as author:

The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Clinical exercise stress testing. Safety and performance guidelines. Med J Aust 1996;164:282-4.

No author given:

Cancer in South Africa [editorial]. S Afr Med J 1994;84:15.

Type of article indicated as needed:

Enzensberger W, Fischer PA. Metronome in Parkinson’s disease [letter]. Lancet 1996;347:1337.

Clement J, De Bock R. Hematological complications of hantavirus nephropathy (HVN) [abstract]. Kidney Int 1992;42:1285.

Electronic Material

Journal article in electronic format:

Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar [cited 1996 Jun 5]; 1(1):[24 screens]. Available from: URL:

Monograph in electronic format:

CDI, clinical dermatology illustrated [monograph on CD-ROM]. Reeves JRT, Maibach H. CMEA Multimedia Group, producers. 2nd ed. Version 2.0. San Diego: CMEA; 1995.

Computer file:

Hemodynamics III: the ups and downs of hemodynamics [computer program]. Version 2.2. Orlando (FL): Computerized Educational Systems; 1993.

Books and Other Monographs

Individual author(s):

Ringsven MK, Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.

Editor(s), compiler(s) as author:

Norman IJ, Redfern SJ, editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.

Organization as author and publisher:

Institute of Medicine (US). Looking at the future of the Medicaid program. Washington: The Institute; 1992.

Chapter in a book:

Phillips SJ, Whisnant JP. Hypertension and stroke. In: Laragh JH, Brenner BM, editors.>Hypertension: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995. p. 465-78.

Conference proceedings:

Kimura J, Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.

Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1992. p. 1561-5.

Sample Manuscript

Please view one of our published articles as a formatting guideline.


When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. Do not use patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution’s or a national research council’s guide for, or any national law on, the care and use of laboratory animals was followed. If you are submitting a paper with supporting materials (images, video) containing identifiable patients, follow the guidelines in the section Administrative (Patient Consent) Files.


Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of P values, which fails to convey important quantitative information. Discuss the eligibility of experimental subjects. Give details about randomization. Describe the methods for and success of any blinding of observations. Report complications of treatment. Give numbers of observations. Report losses to observation (such as dropouts from a clinical trial). References for the design of the study and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated) rather than to papers in which the designs or methods were originally reported. Specify any general-use computer programs used.


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.

Copyright Notice

Authors retain the copyright to all original submitted materials. However, by submitting the work to Neurology, Neurophysiology and Neuroscience, authors assign commercial distribution rights for the published work to the Journal and permit open-access non-commercial distribution to readers.


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.


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